Baker HW, Burger HG, de Kretser DM, Dulmanis A, Hudson B, O'Connor S, Paulsen CA, Purcell N, Rennie GC, Seah CS, Taft HP, Wang C. Smals AG, Kloppenborg PW, Lequin RM, Benraad TJ.  |  Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). Consensus statement on diagnosis and clinical management of Klinefelter syndrome. Mean ± SD basal serum prolactin levels were 529.6±174.6 mU l ‐1 in the patients, and 270.1±113.0 mU l ‐1 in the control group (P<0.001). Hormone testing: This can be done through blood or urine samples and can detect if abnormal sex hormone levels — a sign of Klinefelter syndrome — are present. The medication is necessary to bring our low testosterone level to its proper level. Genetically determined male infertility and assisted reproduction techniques. Men with Klinefelter's syndrome have testosterone levels that are significantly lower (−260 ng/dL difference), estradiol levels that are slightly higher (+6.8 pg/mL) though not significantly different when restricted to high-accuracy assays (+5.5 pg/mL difference), and the ratio of estradiol to testosterone is significantly higher (+0.06). However, most men with Klinefelter’s syndrome may have a normal sex life, especially when given appropriate treatment. All people with Klinefelter’s syndrome should therefore have regular check-ups during adult life, ideally in a specialist endocrinology clinic, both to monitor their general health and particularly to monitor testosterone replacement therapy. Testosterone replacement therapy is important where levels are low, and may be required from the start of puberty. However, more recent specialised fertility techniques such as microsurgical testicular sperm extraction and intracytoplasmic sperm injection have helped some men with Klinefelter’s syndrome to father children. Klinefelter's syndrome: Men with Klinefelter's syndrome (a sex chromosome disorder characterized by low levels of male hormones, sterility, breast enlargement, and small testes [medstargeorgetown.org] Physical and occupational therapy may be helpful in affected boys with coordination and muscle problems. A study of the endocrine manifestations of hepatic cirrhosis.  |  Testosterone replacement is generally well-tolerated.  |  These are named either X or Y. Testosterone replacement therapy helps to improve testosterone levels in order to aid muscle development, facial and body hair growth, and sex drive. These are named either X or Y. It is based on an X-chromosomal polysomy, with X-disomy being the most com-mon type of Klinefelter (47, XXY) (Jacobs & Strong, 1959; Linden, Bender, & Robinson, 1995). Patient factsheet: SfE position statement on male hypogonadism and ageing. 2008;17(2):27-30. doi: 10.1297/cpe.17.27. 2013 Dec;17(Suppl 3):S683-4. About 1 of every 650 live male births has an extra X chromosome, but many do not have any symptoms. Klinefelter syndrome is one of the most common chromosome conditions in newborns. Chromosomes carry our genetic information. This may include examining the genital area and chest, performing tests to check reflexes, and assessing development and functioning.The main tests used to diagnose Klinefelter syndrome are: 1. The usual 47 XXY pattern of Klinefelter’s syndrome accounts for around 80% of cases, however, there are also other variations. Basal and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated levels of biologically active and immunoreactive LH (bLH and iLH) were measured in six patients with Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) (mean age 24.7 years). The majority of men with Klinefelter’s syndrome lead an independent life, forming relationships and getting a normal job and have a normal life span. Chromosome analysis. It is one of the most common chromosome abnormalities in men. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. If KS is suspected, a GP should arrange blood tests to check the levels of gonadotrophins (lutenising Hormone (LH) and follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)) and Testosterone in the blood. This may be accompanied by somewhat less secondary sex characteristics, including decreased body hair or decreased muscle development. Consistent with previous observations in adolescent and adult Klinefelter subjects, testosterone levels in the neonatal period were lower than in normal infants. 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