Cottonwoods (Populus deltoids) are massive shade trees that grow naturally throughout the United States. The eastern cottonwood is without a doubt, one of the largest hardwood trees found in North America. It is native to eastern North America through the Midwest and Chicago region. Get expert help from The Morton Arboretum Plant Clinic. Eastern cottonwood is the state tree of Nebraska and can grow in great abundance along streams and rivers and other wet areas. Eastern Cottonwood provides nesting habitat for such birds as the Pileated Woodpecker (cavities in large trees), Baltimore Oriole, Warbling Vireo, Northern Parula, and Yellow Warbler (young trees). Cottonwood is the state tree of Kansas and Wyoming. It is a riparian zone tree which means it is mostly found in areas that form the interface between land and water bodies such as rivers or streams. More information about the Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides). bare cottonwood tree in the snow, yellowstone national park, unesco world heritage site, wyoming, united states of america, north america - eastern cottonwood tree stock pictures, royalty-free photos & … The lightweight, rather soft wood is used primarily for core stock in manufacturing furniture and for pulpwood. Altitude is a primary determiner of the western boundary. Eastern cottonwood grows along streams and on bottomlands from southern Quebec westward into North Dakota and southwestern Manitoba, south to central Texas, and east to northwestern Florida and Georgia. Natural Areas Conservation Training Program, Black walnut toxicity (plants tolerant of), Preventing construction damage to trees and shrubs, Trees and shrubs for the four seasons landscape, Sudden Oak Death, Ramorum Blight and Phytophthora ramorum, Eastern United States Wetlands Collection. It grows on a variety of soil types but prefers moist, well-drained sands or silts along river bottoms. occidentalis, plains cottonwood, where the ranges overlap. Click on second leaf photo for enlargement to see flattened stem and glands at base of leaf. The largest specimen in Iowa is over 11 feet in diameter, 80 feet tall and more than 85 feet in width. Cottonwood trees get their name from the fluffy cotton-like seeds produced by the female tree. These may either be gray or green in color. Fire generally kills eastern cottonwood. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. Eastern cottonwood is a large, fast-growing tree found growing along streams, rivers, and lowland areas. Swamp Cottonwood (P. heterophllya) grows through the southeast. Our future. The Balmville Tree (cut in 2015) was the oldest eastern cottonwood in the United States.. The leaves of Populus deltoides are simple, alternate, toothed and broadly triangular. It grows best on moist well-drained sands or silts near streams, often in pure stands. The female trees have fruit capsules packed with numerous, tufted seeds with silky white hairs, giving the appearance of cotton. C-Value: 2 This giant may grow 24+" annually, once established. Yellowish twigs, coarsely toothed leaves and gummy end buds distinguish this from the other poplars. Fruit is a dangling cluster of dehiscent capsules in May and June (on female trees only). It is not uncommon for young trees to grow in excess of 6 feet in height each year. Our trees. The leaf petiole is 3 to 4 inches long and flatted. Siouxland Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides 'Siouxland'):  A male cultivar (produces no seeds or 'cotton'); fast-growing (2 to 3 feet per year); resistant to rust; oval form, yellow fall color. (Dave Powell/USDA Forest Service/CC BY 3.0 us), (U.S. Geological Survey/Wikimedia Commons), (Bureau of Land Management/Wikimedia Commons), Cucumbertree, A Common Tree in North America, Mockernut Hickory, A Common Tree in North America, Black Locust, a Common Tree in North America, White Oak, A Common Tree in North America, Slippery Elm, A Common Tree in North America, Southern Red Oak, a Common Tree in North America, American Beech, a Common Tree in North America, Butternut, a Common Tree in North America, Black Oak, a Common Tree in North America, Scarlet Oak, A Top 100 Common Tree in North America, Willow Oak: Favorite Wildlife Food and Landscape Tree, B.S., Forest Resource Management, University of Georgia. Deep planting permits reforesting of nonproductive fields with sandy soils having available moisture beneath a dry surface layer. Mature trees produce an ash- gray, blocky, thick bark with deep furrows and ridges. Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) is one of the largest North American hardwood trees, although the wood is rather soft. Male and female flowers develop on separate trees. Trees with multiple trunks are excluded. ex Marsh. Borrowing the Spanish word for 'cottonwood,' the Mission San Antonio de Valero is commonly known as 'The Alamo' because of the presence of nearby cottonwood trees. Steve Nix is a natural resources consultant and a former forest resources analyst for the state of Alabama. Susceptible to a wide range of diseases including dieback, cankers, leaf spots, rusts and powdery mildew. Use enter to activate. Eastern Cottonwood is a large, fast-growing deciduous tree. Roots are shallow-rotted and can invade septic and sewer systems. Common name: Eastern cottonwood Most photos on this page are of a tree in Naperville, Illinois, along the west branch of the DuPage River. Eastern Cottonwood Tree – Populus deltoides Family Salicaceae — Willow, Cottonwood, Aspen. Our communities. The new growth is high in protein and minerals. They have lustrous, bright green foliage in summer that changes to brilliant yellow in fall. The Eastern Cottonwood is from eastern North America and typically found growing along streams, rivers, and in lowland areas and swamps, and here in Houston, we like to plant them as a showy, fast-growing shade tree! He is a member of the Society of American Foresters. Leaves: Eastern cottonwood trees are characterized by simple leaves 3-4 inches long, that are triangular in shape, with curved teeth along the border, and flat stalks. It also thrives in floodplains and dry riverbeds, where infrequent rains transform dry land into waterways. Of course this inventory contains only tree records as far as they are registered on this site. A towering native, a cottonwood tree soars and spreads, growing more than 100 feet tall and almost as wide. Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), one of the largest eastern hardwoods, is short-lived but the fastest-growing commercial forest species in North America. The ends of the twigs are usually covered with a brown balsam-scented resin. Fast-growing yet relatively short-lived, cottonwoods are easily distinguished by their triangular- (or deltoid-) shaped leaves that easily flutter in the wind. Eastern Cottonwood Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) is the fastest growing and largest tree found in Iowa. Coarse sands and heavy clay soils are not satisfactory. Seeds provide a valued food source for birds. Leaves are simple, opposite, large, and oval (almost heartshaped). Alternate leaf arrangement. It grows best on moist well-drained sands or silts near streams, often in pure stands. It is a riparian zone tree. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. Plant cottonwoods only if your house has a large expanse of outdoor land for maximum effect. Habitat and conservation: Occurs in moist lowlands near streams and rivers. Twig: Stout, somewhat angled and yellowish; buds are 3/4 inch long, covered with several brown, resinous scales. Eastern cottonwood is a large, fast-growing tree found growing along streams, rivers, and lowland areas. You can recognize them at a distance by their broad, white trunks. The petiole is flattened and glands are present at the top of the petiole. Explore this online platform for Chicago-area residents to share their favorite stories about trees. Populus deltoides, commonly called eastern cottonwood, is a large, fast-growing, deciduous tree that typically grows 50-80’ (less frequently to 120’) tall with a broad, open-rounded shaped habit. Although cottonwood trees are really attractive and add to the appeal of their surroundings, their immense size makes them unsuitable for small yards. These trees have been very important to the native people living in North America… Insect include borers, aphids, caterpillars and scale. It is native to eastern North America through the Midwest and Chicago region. use escape to move to top level menu parent. Eastern Cottonwood (Populus deltoides) $ 35.00 Large, fast-growing, deciduous tree. The leaf shape is roughly triangular, hence the species name, deltoides. Eastern cottonwoods typically live 70–100 years, but they have the potential to live 200-400 years in ideal conditions. Share your photo. deltoides is located in Beatrice, Nebraska and measures 27 m (88 ft) tall, 33 m (108 ft) wide. The US national champion Populus deltoides var. It’s a cherished shade tree, often planted in parks. Leaf buds are large, 1-inch long, reddish green and pointed. Eastern cottonwood is one of the few hardwood species that is planted and grown specifically for these purposes. Flower: Species is dioecious; male and female as pendulous catkins, appearing before the leaves. Male clones, which have none of the objectionable "cotton" associated with seed, are preferred. Cottonwood leaflets Eastern cottonwood, one of the largest eastern hardwoods, is short-lived but the fastest-growing commercial forest species in North America. From top level menus, use escape to exit the menu. If you want to achieve quick shade in a large open space, Eastern Cottonwood is a fine choice. It occurs throughout the eastern United States and just into southern Canada. Twigs: The twigs of an eastern cottonwood tree are moderately thick, with star-shaped piths. These are some of the largest and fastest-growing trees. This plant has some cultivated varieties. Due to its large size, weak wood, and penetrating roots, it is best used on large properties away from residential areas. The north-south distribution extends from latitude 28 N. to 46 N. It is absent from the higher Appalachian areas and from much of Florida and the Gulf Coast except along rivers. It grows best on moist well-drained sands or silts near streams, often in pure stands. Each seed produces a bit of fluff to aid in wind dispersal. Cottonwood makes its best growth on moist, well-drained, fine sandy loams or silt loams. Eastern cottonwood is frequently planted to give quick shade near homes. Has a bitter aspirin taste. Female flowers are yellow. The Eastern Cottonwood, Populus deltoides, is one of the largest North American hardwood trees, although the wood is rather soft. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. Produces suckers and aggressive roots. Eastern cottonwoods are dioecious, meaning trees are either male or female. The 2 to 5 inch long, simple, triangle-shaped, deciduous leaves have a toothed margin, and an elongated tip. Well suited along streams, riverbanks, swamps and in lowland, rain gardens and rural areas. Some mammals also use Eastern Cottonwood as a food source. Dioecious , male trees have dangling reddish catkins befor leaves appear. Have tree and plant questions? Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), one of the largest eastern hardwoods, is short-lived but the fastest-growing commercial forest species in North America. Stop by, email, or call. eastern cottonwood This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in … The petiole is flattened and glands are present at the top of the petiole. The leavesare alternate and simple, with coarsely toothed (crenate/serrate) edges, and subcordate at the base. Fire scars may facilitate the onset of heartwood decay. Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately veined, 3 to 6 inches long, triangular (deltoid) in shape with a crenate/serrate margin. Easily grown in average, medium to wet, well-drained soils in full sun. This tree is also an excellent specimen for erosion control, as seen on strip mine spoils. The Eastern Cottonwood (Populus deltoids) dominates eastern North America, stretching from New Hampshire to the Dakotas and south down to Texas and northern Florida. The "cotton" provides birds with nesting material. Their winter buds are enrobed in a protective, fragrant resin that coats young l… There has also been interest in growing it for inclusion in cattle feed, since it is a good source of cellulose relatively free of undesirable components, such as tannins. Forestryimages.org provides several images of parts of Eastern cottonwood. Nebraska State Tree Eastern Cottonwood (Salicaceae Populus deltoides) Adopted in 1972. Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), one of the largest eastern hardwoods, is short-lived but the fastest-growing commercial forest species in North America. Building the urban forest for 2050. There has been considerable interest in cottonwood for energy biomass, because of its high yield potential and coppicing ability. Eastern Cottonwood is the state tree of Kansas and Nebraska, and is sometimes called the pioneer of the prairie; pioneers on the Oregon Trail would look for such trees, as their shade and firewood was a welcome respite, and their presence usually meant that water was nearby. The eastern cottonwood is a member of the willow family (Salicaceae). Cottonwood has been used for windbreaks and soil stabilization. They are dark green above and a much paler green below. Due to its large size, weak wood, and penetrating roots, it is best used on large properties away from residential areas. Transplant easily, prefers wet soils in full sun, soil pH adaptable. Native to eastern North America through the Midwest and the Chicago Region, growing along streams, rivers, and lowland areas. The bark of young trunks is similar to the pale greenish white color of other members of this genus. The Morton Arboretum is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit that relies on the generosity of members and donors. Extremely fast growing, making it weak-wooded and brittle. Within a submenu, use escape to move to top level menu parent. Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) is common throughout much of the eastern United States and adjacent Canada (Figure 25). Buds are often resinous (sticky), but both buds and twigs are much lighter in color than P. balsamifera, the only other Populus species with heavily resinous buds. The following menu has 3 levels. The western boundary is not well defined because eastern cottonwood intergrades with var. This species is native to the Chicago region according to Swink and Wilhelm's Plants of the Chicago Region, with updates made according to current research. In the wild, cottonwood grows along rivers, ponds and other bodies of water. It is a riparian zone tree. Cottonwood is a large tree growing primarily on alluvial soil and on other sites such as near water tanks, along irrigation ditches, dry washes, floodplains of major rivers, large perennial streams, springs, and in desert oases. Drought tolerant,  You can search, browse, and learn more about the plants in our living collections by visiting our BRAHMS website. It occurs throughout the eastern United States, parts of southern Canada, and northern Mexico. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. It is dioecious; catkins bloom on separate male or female trees in March-April before leaves emerge. The eastern cottonwood is a large and fast growing tree Also called the necklace poplar, the eastern cottonwood tree grows throughout the central and eastern regions of the United States. Read on for more cottonwood tree facts. Go to list of cultivars. Girth records In this table of girth records worldwide only girth measurements made at a height between 1.30 m and 1.50 m are listed. Browse the curated collection and add your voice! The tree is a hardwood and the lineal taxonomy is Magnoliopsida > Salicales > Salicaceae > Populus deltoides deltoides Bartr. Eastern cottonwood is also sometimes called southern cottonwood, Carolina poplar, eastern poplar, necklace poplar, and álamo. eastern cottonwood Salicaceae Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall symbol: PODE3 Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately veined, 3 to 6 inches long, triangular (deltoid) in shape with a crenate/serrate margin. Eastern cottonwood is also called Carolina poplar, eastern poplar, necklace poplar, and álamo. It is often establishes in nearly pure pockets between levees and the main watercourse. Leaves are green in summer, turning yellow or brown in fall. The sight of cottonwoods in the distance was a sure sign of water to early settlers during their travels west. 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